Here are two definitions of Hippie,one Chinese ,one of American. The Green movement,change and respect of the world, Human rights,people realizing life is a travel. That what can be popular or so called informative can be questioned. So is Hippie a great movement that made the change of finding the truth. People that made Americans change the way we are now for freedom,our environment,and realizing our government is not perfect. No George Washington and his Cherry tree and the two definitions are so different.
Hong Kong Willie Hippie Reuse Artist. Artist of the 60’s in the now.
Acclaimed Famous Hippie , Living the Life of using objects for many uses. Follow the travels of life. folk artist
Hippie Purse Hong Kong Willie
“I am ready to travel with you. Made for you, there is only one of me. This is my story: I am a Hong Kong Willie Hippie Bag, arriving from one destination, joining you on your life’s journey. On these travels we will find a way that more of us change. As in my purpose and your purpose, we are all meant for many uses.”
Best Place to Buy $1 Kitsch & $10,000 Folk Art Best of the Bay Award
Hand Made Bag
Shell: Burlap Coffee Bag
Source: Third Generation Coffee Roaster
Stitching: Recovered Yarn
Source: Key West
Handle, Label, Pockets:
Source: Artist Worn Clothing (HKW)
Inner Chambers: 3
Length(Strap to Bottom)-23″
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- 转换标题为： 简体：嬉皮士；繁體：嬉皮；香港：嬉皮士； Jump to: Simplified: hippies; Traditional: hippie; Hong Kong: hippies;
- 实际标题為： 嬉皮士 ；當前顯示為： 嬉皮士 Actual title: hippies; currently displayed as: hippies
- 简体：嬉皮士；繁體：嬉皮；香港：嬉皮士；当前用字模式下显示为→ 嬉皮士 Simplified: hippies; Traditional: hippie; Hong Kong: hippies; the current mode is displayed as words → hippies
字詞轉換是中文维基的一項自動轉換，目的是通過计算机程序自動消除繁简、地区词等不同用字模式的差異，以達到閱讀方便。 Terms of a conversion is automatically converted to the Chinese Wikipedia, aims to eliminate through the computer program automatically display Traditional and Simplified, words such as different regional patterns of the different words in order to achieve ease of reading. 字詞轉換包括全局轉換和手動轉換，本說明所使用的标题转换和全文转换技術，都屬於手動轉換。 Word conversion, including the global conversion and manual conversion, using the title of this note conversion and full conversion technology, all belong to manual conversion.
如果您想对我们的字词转换系统提出一些改进建议，或者提交应用面更广的转换（ 中文维基百科全站乃至MediaWiki软件），或者报告转换系统的错误，请前往Wikipedia:字词转换请求或候选发表您的意见。 If you want to convert our words to make some recommendations for improvement system, or submitted to broader application of the conversion ( Chinese Wikipedia and even the entire station MediaWiki software), or reporting the error transform the system, go to Wikipedia: word conversion request or candidate post your opinion.
嬉皮士 （ 英语 ： Hippie ）本来被用来描写西方国家1960年代和1970年代反抗习俗和当时政治的年轻人。 Hippies ( English : Hippie) was originally used to describe the West in the 1960s and 1970s against the customs and politics of young people at that time. 嬉皮士这个名称是通过《 旧金山纪事 》的记者赫柏·凯恩普及的。 Hippy by the name ” San Francisco Chronicle “reporter Herbert Kane popular. 嬉皮士不是一个统一的文化运动 ，它没有宣言或领导人物。 Hippie is not a unified cultural movement , it does not declarations or leaders. 嬉皮士用公社式的和流浪的生活方式来反应出他们对民族主义和越南战争的反对，他们提倡非传统宗教 ，批评西方国家中层阶级的价值观。 Hippie-style commune and with the wandering lifestyle to reflect their nationalism and the Vietnam War opposition, they advocate non-traditional religions , Western countries criticized middle class values.
他们批评政府对公民的权益的限制，大公司的贪婪，传统道德的狭窄和战争的无人道性。 They criticized the government’s restrictions on the rights of citizens, corporations greed, narrow and traditional morality of the war inhumane. 他们将他们反对的机构和组织称为“陈府”（the establishment）。 They will oppose the institutions and organizations they called “Chen House” (the establishment).
嬉皮士后来也被贬义使用，用來描寫吸毒者。 Later to be derogatory hippies used to describe drug users. 直到最近保守派人士依然使用嬉皮士一词作为对年轻的自由主义人士的侮辱。 Until recently, conservatives are still using the word as a young hippie liberals insult.
当时的嬉皮士想要改变他们的内心（通过使用毒品 、神秘的修养或两者的混合）和走出社会的主流。 At that time the hippies wanted to change their hearts (through the use of drugs , the mysterious mix of self-cultivation, or both) and out of the mainstream of society. 远东形而上学和宗教实践和原著部落的图腾信仰对嬉皮士影响很大。 Far Eastern metaphysics and religious practice and belief in the original tribal totem great impact on the hippies. 这些影响在1970年代演化为神秘学中的新纪元运动 。 Evolution of these effects in the 1970s for the occult in the Campaign .
1940年代和1950年代美国的垮掉的一代称爵士乐音乐家为“hipster”和“beatnik”，同时这两个词也被用来称呼围绕着这些艺术家而出现波希米亚主义似的反文化 。 In the 1940s and 1950s, the United States Beat Generation known jazz musicians as “hipster” and “beatnik”, while the two terms are also used to refer to the emergence of these artists around the doctrine of Bohemia -like counter-culture .
在美国东海岸的格林威治村年轻的反文化者称他们自己为“hips”。 In the United States east coast Greenwich Village counterculture youth who call themselves “hips”. 许多来自纽约市区的失望的年轻人聚集在那个村中，他们穿着他们最旧的衣服。 Many come from New York City’s disappointment that the young people gathered in the village, they wear their oldest clothes. 第一个用嬉皮士这个词来描写这些穿着旧衣的中产阶级子女的媒体是一个广播电台。 The first use of the word to describe these hippies wore old clothes in the middle-class children’s media is a radio station.
1965年 9月6日 旧金山的一家报纸使用首先使用了嬉皮士这个词来描写这些年轻的波西米亚主义者，但其它媒体在此后两年中几乎没有使用过这个词。 1965, September 6 in San Francisco used a newspaper first used the term hippie to describe these young bohemian by nature, but other media in the next two years, the word almost never used.
旧金山海特·亚许柏里地区的嬉皮士是以一个叫做Diggers的团体为中心。 San Francisco, Xu Bo Hai Teya in the region is a hippie group called the Diggers as the center. 这个街头剧团体将即时性的街头剧、无政府主义行动和艺术表演结合在一起，他们的目标是要建立一个“自由城市”。 The immediacy of street theater group will be street theater, anarchistic action and performing arts together, their goal is to create a “free city.” 他们受两个不同的运动影响：一方面受波西米亚主义的、地下艺术的、剧团的影响，另一方面受左派的、民权主义的、和平运动的影响。 Their effects by two different sports: one by the bohemian doctrine, underground art, theater impact, on the other hand by the leftist, populist, and peace movement. 加利福尼亚州的洛杉矶也有一个非常活跃的嬉皮士社团。 California ‘s Los Angeles also has a very active hippie community. 1967年夏许多年轻人（警察估计有七万五千人）聚集在海特·亚许柏里分享他们的新文化的音乐、毒品和反抗。 1967 summer many young people (police estimate there are seventy and five thousand people) gathered in the Bo Hai Teya promise to share their culture in music, drugs and rebellion.
1960年代末嬉皮士运动达到其高潮。 In the late 1960s hippie movement reached its climax. 1976年 7月7日 《时代》杂志将嬉皮士运动作为其封面故事：《嬉皮士：一个次文化的哲学》 1976, July 7 , “Time” magazine as its cover story hippie movement: “Hippies: Philosophy of a sub-culture”
由于许多嬉皮士在他们的头发里带花或向行人分花，因此他们也有“花孩子”（Flower Kids）的外号。 Since many hippies inner tube flowers in their hair or spend hours to pedestrians, they also have “flower children” (Flower Kids) nickname.
嬉皮士经常参加和平运动 ，包括反越战的游行和争取人权的游行。 Hippies often participated in peace movements , including anti-Vietnam War marches and demonstrations for human rights. 青年国际党是嬉皮士中特别政治活跃的亚群。 Youth International Party is particularly politically active hippie sub-group.
嬉皮士也通过“落出”社会的方式来表达他们的政治愿望和实现他们所寻求的变化。 Hippies also through the “fall out” of society to express their political aspirations and to achieve the changes they seek. 回到农村去、合作企业、 替代性能源 、新闻自由运动和有机农业在嬉皮士运动开始时都受到青睐。 Back to rural areas, cooperative enterprises, alternative energy sources , press freedom movement and organic agriculture in the hippie movement began when they are favored.
许多人认为嬉皮士滥用毒品的程度被支持越战的人夸张。 Many people believe that the extent of drug abuse hippies supported the Vietnam War who exaggerated. 他们用这个借口来反驳嬉皮士反对越战的理由。 They use this excuse to refute the reasons for hippies against the Vietnam War. 但实际上的确有许多嬉皮士使用毒品。 But in fact does have a lot of hippies use drugs. 他们尤其希望利用毒品所产生的幻觉来达到内心的修养。 In particular, they hope to use drugs to achieve the illusion produced by the cultivation of the heart. 尤其大麻和其它能够产生幻觉的药品如LSD和裸盖菇素 。 In particular, cannabis and other drugs can produce hallucinations, such as LSD and mushrooms, cover the bare elements . 虽然也有许多嬉皮士不用毒品，但毒品往往被看作是嬉皮士的一个标志和他们不肯遵从社会守则的原因。 Although there are many hippies do drugs, but drugs are often perceived as a sign of hippies and they refuse to comply with the social code of reasons.
使用毒品至今被看作是嬉皮士文化的一个中心内容。 Drug use has been seen as a central element of hippie culture.
许多人认为嬉皮士不抽烟，因为他们认为抽烟有害，但当时的照片显示许多嬉皮士抽烟。 Many people think that hippies did not smoke because they believe that smoking is bad, but the photos show that many hippies were smoking.
1970年许多嬉皮士的生活形式进入了主流文化，但其下的实质却很少被主流文化吸收。 In 1970 many of the hippie lifestyle into the mainstream culture, but few have been under substantial absorption of mainstream culture. 媒介渐渐丧失了对这个次文化的兴趣，年轻人对它也丧失了时髦感。 Media gradually lost interest in this subculture, young people also lost its fashion sense. 随着庞克摇滚的出现，嬉皮士甚至成为年轻人的反感形势。 With punk rock appearance, hippies and even become disgusted with the situation of young people. 但也有许多嬉皮士保持了他们的生活方式，甚至在主流文化中保持他们的生活方式。 But there are many hippies to maintain their way of life, even in the mainstream culture to maintain their lifestyle. 直到2005年全世界到处依然有嬉皮士的社群点，有些人随着他们喜欢的乐队流浪。 Over the world until 2005, the hippie community still point, some people like the band as they stray. 从1970年代初开始出现的为和平祈祷的彩虹聚会今天依然保持，其它聚会和音乐节则致力于生命或爱。 From the 1970s, began to emerge in the early to pray for peace rainbow party remains today, the other party and music festival is dedicated to the life or love.
- 长髮，大胡子。 Long hair, big beard. 许多人觉得长髮是一种冒犯，因为它代表不整洁或女性。 Many people think that long hair is a kind of offended, because it is not neat or on behalf of women.
- 色彩鲜艳的衣着或不寻常的衣饰。 Brightly colored clothing or unusual clothing.
- 听一定的音乐，比如吉米·罕醉克斯和杰菲逊飞艇的迷幻摇滚、 詹妮斯·乔普林的藍調 、 斯莱和斯通家族 、 ZZ顶级乐队 、 死之华乐队等的音乐。 Listening to certain music, such as Jimi Han Hendrix and Jefferson airship ‘s psychedelic rock, Janice Joplin ‘s blues , Sly and the Family Stone , the band ZZ Top , Death of Chinese bands , etc. music.
- 偶尔自己演奏音乐，一般吉他，一般在家里与朋友一起，或在公共绿地上或节日上。 Occasionally play their music, usually guitar, usually at home with friends, or in a public green space or festival.
- 自由恋爱 Free love
- 公社式的生活 Commune life style
- 毒品 Drugs
新嬉皮士是对21世纪的嬉皮士的称呼，他们恢复了一些1960年代嬉皮士运动的观点，比如他们也强调自由，穿他们愿意穿的衣服，做他们想要做的事。 Hippie is the new 21st century hippies of the call, they restored some of the views of the 1960s hippy movement, such as they also stressed the freedom to wear clothes they would wear, do what they want to do. 与1960年代的嬉皮士不同的是新嬉皮士一般不政治性，而1960年代的嬉皮士实际上是一个政治运动。 1960s hippies and the difference is generally not a new political hippies, but hippies of the 1960s is actually a political movement.
保守的主流人士用嬉皮士一词来指吸毒的人，尤其吸大麻的人，以及不愿参加社会活动，缺乏社会义务感和缺乏卫生感的人。 With the mainstream conservative parties to refer to the term hippie drugs, especially marijuana, and persons willing to participate in social activities, the lack of a sense of social obligations and lack of health sense people. 庞克摇滚次文化的人士则使用嬉皮士一词来指陈腐的、无聊的或讨厌的人。 Punk rock sub-culture of hippies who use the term to refer to a stale, boring or annoying people.
Hippie Artist Born for this time, Lived on a landfill as a child. Reuse Became the way of life. To read the story from the inception of the Name Hong Kong Willie. Famed, by the humble statements from the Key West Citizen, viable art from reuse has found its time. To Live a life in the art world and be so blessed to make a social impact. Artists are to give back, talent is to tell a story, to make change. Reuse is a life experience.
Hong Kong Willie Hippie Art Gallery In Tampa, a reuse Hippie Art Gallery. Artist Kim,Derek,and Joseph. reuse artist that have lived the life and are meant for the green movement in the world. A gallery that was born for this time. Hippie Artist living a freegan life,art that makes a social statement of reuse. Media that has a profound effect in making the word green truly a movement of reuse in the world today and the future.
Hippie Art Galleries
The hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s, swiftly spreading to other countries around the world. The etymology of the term ‘hippie’ is from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into New York City’s Greenwich Village and San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury district. The early hippie ideology included the countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Some created their own social groups and communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs such as marijuana and LSD to explore alternative states of consciousness.
In January 1967, the Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco popularized hippie culture, leading to the legendary Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, and the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast. Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda Chicana and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom, mobile “peace convoys” of New age travellers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge. In Australia hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass. In Chile, “Piedra Roja Festival” was held in 1970, and was the major hippie event in that country.
Hippie fashions and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts. Since the widespread movement in the 1960s, many aspects of hippie culture have been assimilated by mainstream society. The religious and cultural diversity espoused by the hippies has gained widespread acceptance, and Eastern philosophy and spiritual concepts have reached a wide audience. The hippie legacy can be observed in contemporary culture in myriad forms — from health food, to music festivals, to contemporary sexual mores, and even to the cyberspace revolution.
Lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown. The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1940. Although the word hippie made isolated appearances during the early 1960s, the first clearly contemporary use of the term appeared in print on September 5, 1965, in the article, “A New Haven for Beatniks“, by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon. In that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn coffeehouse, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions.
The foundation of the hippie movement finds historical precedent as far back as the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics also as early forms of hippie culture. Hippie philosophy also credits the religious and spiritual teachings of Jesus Christ, Hillel the Elder, Buddha, Mazdak, St. Francis of Assisi, Henry David Thoreau, and Gandhi.
The first signs of what we would call modern “proto-hippies” emerged in fin de siècle Europe. Between 1896 and 1908, a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around German folk music. Known as Der Wandervogel (“migratory bird”), the movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing amateur music and singing, creative dress, and communal outings involving hiking and camping. Inspired by the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Goethe, Hermann Hesse, and Eduard Baltzer, Wandervogel attracted thousands of young Germans who rejected the rapid trend toward urbanization and yearned for the pagan, back-to-nature spiritual life of their ancestors. During the first several decades of the twentieth century, Germans settled around the United States, bringing the values of the Wandervogel with them. Some opened the first health food stores, and many moved to Southern California where they could practice an alternative lifestyle in a warm climate. Over time, young Americans adopted the beliefs and practices of the new immigrants. One group, called the “Nature Boys”, took to the California desert and raised organic food, espousing a back-to-nature lifestyle like the Wandervogel. Songwriter Eden Ahbez wrote a hit song called Nature Boy inspired by Robert Bootzin (Gypsy Boots), who helped popularize health-consciousness, yoga, and organic food in the United States.
Like Wandervogel, the hippie movement in the United States began as a youth movement. Composed mostly of white teenagers and young adults between the ages of 15 and 25 years old, hippies inherited a tradition of cultural dissent from bohemians and beatniks of the Beat Generation in the late 1950s. Beats like Allen Ginsberg crossed-over from the beat movement and became fixtures of the burgeoning hippie and anti-war movements. By 1965, hippies had become an established social group in the U.S., and the movement eventually expanded to other countries, extending as far as the United Kingdom and Europe, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico, and Brazil. The hippie ethos influenced The Beatles and others in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe, and they in turn influenced their American counterparts. Hippie culture spread worldwide through a fusion of rock music, folk, blues, and psychedelic rock; it also found expression in literature, the dramatic arts, fashion, and the visual arts, including film, posters advertising rock concerts, and album covers. Self-described hippies had become a significant minority by 1968, representing just under 0.2% of the U.S. population before declining in the mid-1970s.
Along with the New Left and the American Civil Rights Movement, the hippie movement was one of three dissenting groups of the 1960s counterculture. Hippies rejected established institutions, criticized middle class values, opposed nuclear weapons and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Eastern philosophy, championed sexual liberation, were often vegetarian and eco-friendly, promoted the use of psychedelic drugs which they believed expanded one’s consciousness, and created intentional communities or communes. They used alternative arts, street theatre, folk music, and psychedelic rock as a part of their lifestyle and as a way of expressing their feelings, their protests and their vision of the world and life. Hippies opposed political and social orthodoxy, choosing a gentle and nondoctrinaire ideology that favored peace, love and personal freedom, expressed for example in The Beatles‘ song “All You Need is Love“. Hippies perceived the dominant culture as a corrupt, monolithic entity that exercised undue power over their lives, calling this culture “The Establishment“, “Big Brother“, or “The Man“. Noting that they were “seekers of meaning and value”, scholars like Timothy Miller have described hippies as a new religious movement.
 Early hippies (1960–1966)
“The 60′s were a leap in human consciousness. Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Che Guevara, Mother Teresa, they led a revolution of conscience. The Beatles, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix created revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dali, with many colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go there to find themselves.”
During the early 1960s novelist Ken Kesey and The Merry Pranksters lived communally in California. Members included Beat Generation hero Neal Cassady, Ken Babbs, Carolyn Adams (aka Mountain Girl and Carolyn Garcia), Stewart Brand, Del Close, Paul Foster, George Walker, Sandy Lehmann-Haupt and others. Their early escapades were documented in Tom Wolfe‘s book The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. With Cassady at the wheel of a school bus named Further, the Merry Pranksters traveled across the United States to celebrate the publication of Kesey’s novel Sometimes a Great Notion and to visit the 1964 World’s Fair in New York City. The Merry Pranksters were known for using marijuana, amphetamines, and LSD, and during their journey they “turned on” many people to these drugs. The Merry Pranksters filmed and audiotaped their bus trips, creating an immersive multimedia experience that would later be presented to the public in the form of festivals and concerts. The Grateful Dead wrote a song about the Merry Pranksters’ bus trips called “That’s It for the Other One”.
During this period Greenwich Village in New York City and Berkeley, California anchored the American folk music circuit. Berkeley’s two coffee houses, the Cabale Creamery and the Jabberwock (see Jabberwock), sponsored performances by folk music artists in a beat setting. In April 1963, Chandler A. Laughlin III, co-founder of the Cabale Creamery, established a kind of tribal, family identity among approximately fifty people who attended a traditional, all-night Native American peyote ceremony in a rural setting. This ceremony combined a psychedelic experience with traditional Native American spiritual values; these people went on to sponsor a unique genre of musical expression and performance at the Red Dog Saloon in the isolated, old-time mining town of Virginia City, Nevada.
During the summer of 1965, Laughlin recruited much of the original talent that led to a unique amalgam of traditional folk music and the developing psychedelic rock scene. He and his cohorts created what became known as “The Red Dog Experience”, featuring previously unknown musical acts — Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Iron Butterfly, Big Brother and the Holding Company, Quicksilver Messenger Service, The Charlatans, and others — who played in the completely refurbished, intimate setting of Virginia City’s Red Dog Saloon. There was no clear delineation between “performers” and “audience” in “The Red Dog Experience”, during which music, psychedelic experimentation, a unique sense of personal style and Bill Ham’s first primitive light shows combined to create a new sense of community. Laughlin and George Hunter of the Charlatans were true “proto-hippies”, with their long hair, boots and outrageous clothing of nineteenth-century American (and Native American) heritage. LSD manufacturer Owsley Stanley lived in Berkeley during 1965 and provided much of the LSD that became a seminal part of the “Red Dog Experience”, the early evolution of psychedelic rock and budding hippie culture. At the Red Dog Saloon, The Charlatans were the first psychedelic rock band to play live (albeit unintentionally) loaded on LSD.
When they returned to San Francisco, Red Dog participants Luria Castell, Ellen Harman and Alton Kelley created a collective called “The Family Dog.” Modeled on their Red Dog experiences, on October 16, 1965, the Family Dog hosted “A Tribute to Dr. Strange” at Longshoreman’s Hall. Attended by approximately 1,000 of the Bay Area’s original “hippies”, this was San Francisco’s first psychedelic rock performance, costumed dance and light show, featuring Jefferson Airplane, The Great Society and The Marbles. Two other events followed before year’s end, one at California Hall and one at the Matrix. After the first three Family Dog events, a much larger psychedelic event occurred at San Francisco’s Longshoreman’s Hall. Called “The Trips Festival”, it took place on January 21–January 23, 1966, and was organized by Stewart Brand, Ken Kesey, Owsley Stanley and others. Ten thousand people attended this sold-out event, with a thousand more turned away each night. On Saturday January 22, the Grateful Dead and Big Brother and the Holding Company came on stage, and 6,000 people arrived to imbibe punch spiked with LSD and to witness one of the first fully developed light shows of the era.
It is nothing new. We have a private revolution going on. A revolution of individuality and diversity that can only be private. Upon becoming a group movement, such a revolution ends up with imitators rather than participants…It is essentially a striving for realization of one’s relationship to life and other people…
By February 1966, the Family Dog became Family Dog Productions under organizer Chet Helms, promoting happenings at the Avalon Ballroom and the Fillmore Auditorium in initial cooperation with Bill Graham. The Avalon Ballroom, the Fillmore Auditorium and other venues provided settings where participants could partake of the full psychedelic music experience. Bill Ham, who had pioneered the original Red Dog light shows, perfected his art of liquid light projection, which combined light shows and film projection and became synonymous with the San Francisco ballroom experience. The sense of style and costume that began at the Red Dog Saloon flourished when San Francisco’s Fox Theater went out of business and hippies bought up its costume stock, reveling in the freedom to dress up for weekly musical performances at their favorite ballrooms. As San Francisco Chronicle music columnist Ralph J. Gleason put it, “They danced all night long, orgiastic, spontaneous and completely free form.”
Some of the earliest San Francisco hippies were former students at San Francisco State College who became intrigued by the developing psychedelic hippie music scene. These students joined the bands they loved, living communally in the large, inexpensive Victorian apartments in the Haight-Ashbury. Young Americans around the country began moving to San Francisco, and by June 1966, around 15,000 hippies had moved into the Haight. The Charlatans, Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother and the Holding Company, and the Grateful Dead all moved to San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury neighborhood during this period. Activity centered around the Diggers, a guerrilla street theatre group that combined spontaneous street theatre, anarchistic action, and art happenings in their agenda to create a “free city”. By late 1966, the Diggers opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art.
On October 6, 1966, the state of California declared LSD a controlled substance, which made the drug illegal. In response to the criminalization of psychedelics, San Francisco hippies staged a gathering in the Golden Gate Park panhandle, called the Love Pageant Rally, attracting an estimated 700–800 people. As explained by Allan Cohen, co-founder of the San Francisco Oracle, the purpose of the rally was twofold: to draw attention to the fact that LSD had just been made illegal — and to demonstrate that people who used LSD were not criminals, nor were they mentally ill. The Grateful Dead played, and some sources claim that LSD was consumed at the rally. According to Cohen, those who took LSD “were not guilty of using illegal substances…We were celebrating transcendental consciousness, the beauty of the universe, the beauty of being.”
 Summer of Love (1967)
On January 14, 1967, the outdoor Human Be-In organized by Michael Bowen helped to popularize hippie culture across the United States, with 20,000 hippies gathering in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park. On March 26, Lou Reed, Edie Sedgwick and 10,000 hippies came together in Manhattan for the Central Park Be-In on Easter Sunday. The Monterey Pop Festival from June 16 to June 18 introduced the rock music of the counterculture to a wide audience and marked the start of the “Summer of Love”. Scott McKenzie‘s rendition of John Phillips‘ song, “San Francisco“, became a hit in the United States and Europe. The lyrics, “If you’re going to San Francisco, be sure to wear some flowers in your hair”, inspired thousands of young people from all over the world to travel to San Francisco, sometimes wearing flowers in their hair and distributing flowers to passersby, earning them the name, “Flower Children“. Bands like the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company (with Janis Joplin), and Jefferson Airplane lived in the Haight.
In June 1967, Herb Caen was approached by “a distinguished magazine” to write about why hippies were attracted to San Francisco. He declined the assignment but interviewed hippies in the Haight for his own newspaper column in the San Francisco Chronicle. Caen determined that, “Except in their music, they couldn’t care less about the approval of the straight world.” Caen himself felt that the city of San Francisco was so straight that it provided a visible contrast with hippie culture. On July 7, Time magazine featured a cover story entitled, “The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture.” The article described the guidelines of the hippie code: “Do your own thing, wherever you have to do it and whenever you want. Drop out. Leave society as you have known it. Leave it utterly. Blow the mind of every straight person you can reach. Turn them on, if not to drugs, then to beauty, love, honesty, fun.” It is estimated that around 100,000 people traveled to San Francisco in the summer of 1967. The media was right behind them, casting a spotlight on the Haight-Ashbury district and popularizing the “hippie” label. With this increased attention, hippies found support for their ideals of love and peace but were also criticized for their anti-work, pro-drug, and permissive ethos.
By the end of the summer, the Haight-Ashbury scene had deteriorated. The incessant media coverage led the Diggers to declare the “death” of the hippie with a parade. According to the late poet Susan ‘Stormi’ Chambless, the hippies buried an effigy of a hippie in the Panhandle to demonstrate the end of his/her reign. Haight-Ashbury could not accommodate the influx of crowds (mostly naive youngsters) with no place to live. Many took to living on the street, panhandling and drug-dealing. There were problems with malnourishment, disease, and drug addiction. Crime and violence skyrocketed. By the end of 1967, many of the hippies and musicians who initiated the Summer of Love had moved on. Beatle George Harrison had once visited Haight-Ashbury and found it to be just a haven for dropouts inspiring him to give up LSD.Misgivings about the hippie culture, particularly with regard to drug abuse and lenient morality, fueled the moral panics of the late 1960s.
 Revolution (1967–1970)
By 1968, hippie-influenced fashions were beginning to take off in the mainstream, especially for youths and younger adults of the populous “Baby Boomer” generation, many of whom may have aspired to emulate the hardcore movements now living in tribalistic communes, but had no overt connections to them. This was noticed not only in terms of clothes and also longer hair for men, but also in music, film, art, and literature, and not just in the US, but around the world. Eugene McCarthy‘s brief presidential campaign successfully persuaded a significant minority of young adults to “get clean for Gene” by shaving their beards or wearing longer skirts; however the “Clean Genes” had little impact on the popular image in the media spotlight, of the hirsute hippy adorned in beads, feathers, flowers and bells.
The Yippies, who were seen as an offshoot of the hippie movements parodying as a political party, came to national attention during their celebration of the 1968 spring equinox, when some 3,000 of them took over Grand Central Station in New York — eventually resulting in 61 arrests. The Yippies, especially their leaders Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, became notorious for their theatrics, such as trying to levitate the Pentagon at the October 1967 war protest, and such slogans as “Rise up and abandon the creeping meatball!” Their stated intention to protest the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago in August, including nominating their own candidate, “Lyndon Pigasus Pig” (an actual pig), was also widely publicized in the media at this time.
In April 1969, the building of People’s Park in Berkeley, California received international attention. The University of California, Berkeley had demolished all the buildings on a 2.8-acre (11,000 m2) parcel near campus, intending to use the land to build playing fields and a parking lot. After a long delay, during which the site became a dangerous eyesore, thousands of ordinary Berkeley citizens, merchants, students, and hippies took matters into their own hands, planting trees, shrubs, flowers and grass to convert the land into a park. A major confrontation ensued on May 15, 1969, when Governor Ronald Reagan ordered the park destroyed, which led to a two-week occupation of the city of Berkeley by the United States National Guard. Flower power came into its own during this occupation as hippies engaged in acts of civil disobedience to plant flowers in empty lots all over Berkeley under the slogan “Let A Thousand Parks Bloom”.
In August 1969, the Woodstock Music and Art Fair took place in Bethel, New York, which for many, exemplified the best of hippie counterculture. Over 500,000 people arrived to hear some of the most notable musicians and bands of the era, among them Richie Havens, Joan Baez, Janis Joplin, The Grateful Dead, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, Carlos Santana, The Who, Jefferson Airplane, and Jimi Hendrix. Wavy Gravy’s Hog Farm provided security and attended to practical needs, and the hippie ideals of love and human fellowship seemed to have gained real-world expression.
In December 1969, a similar event took place in Altamont, California, about 30 miles (45 km) east of San Francisco. Initially billed as “Woodstock West”, its official name was The Altamont Free Concert. About 300,000 people gathered to hear The Rolling Stones; Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young; Jefferson Airplane and other bands. The Hells Angels provided security that proved far less benevolent than the security provided at the Woodstock event: 18-year-old Meredith Hunter was stabbed and killed during The Rolling Stones’ performance.
 Aftershocks (1970–present)
By the 1970s, the 1960s zeitgeist that had spawned hippie culture seemed to be on the wane. The events at Altamont Free Concert shocked many Americans, including those who had strongly identified with hippie culture. Another shock came in the form of the Sharon Tate and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca murders committed in August 1969 by Charles Manson and his “family” of followers. Nevertheless, the turbulent political atmosphere that featured the bombing of Cambodia and shootings by National Guardsmen at Jackson State University and Kent State University still brought people together. These shootings inspired the May 1970 song by Quicksilver Messenger Service “What About Me?”, where they sang, “You keep adding to my numbers as you shoot my people down”, as well as Neil Young‘s “Ohio“, recorded by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young.
Much of hippie style had been integrated into mainstream American society by the early 1970s. Large rock concerts that originated with the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival and the 1968 Isle of Wight Festival became the norm, evolving into stadium rock in the process. In the mid-1970s, with the end of the draft and the Vietnam War, a renewal of patriotic sentiment associated with the approach of the United States Bicentennial and the emergence of punk in London, Manchester, New York and Los Angeles, the mainstream media lost interest in the hippie counterculture. At the same time there was a revival of the Mod subculture, skinheads, teddy boys and the emergence of new youth cultures, like the goths (an arty offshoot of punk) and football casuals. Acid rock gave way to prog rock, heavy metal, disco, and punk rock.
Starting in the late 1960s, hippies began to come under attack by working-class skinheads. Hippies were also vilified and sometimes attacked by punks, revivalist mods, greasers, football casuals, Teddy boys and members of other youth subcultures of the 1970s and 1980s. The countercultural movement was also under covert assault by J. Edgar Hoover‘s infamous “Counter Intelligence Program” (COINTELPRO), but in some countries it was other youth groups that were a threat. Hippie ideals had a marked influence on anarcho-punk and some post-punk youth subcultures, especially during the Second Summer of Love.
While many hippies made a long-term commitment to the lifestyle, some people argue that hippies “sold out” during the 1980s and became part of the materialist, consumer culture. Although not as visible as it once was, hippie culture has never died out completely: hippies and neo-hippies can still be found on college campuses, on communes, and at gatherings and festivals. Many embrace the hippie values of peace, love, and community, and hippies may still be found in bohemian enclaves around the world.
 Ethos and characteristics
Hippies sought to free themselves from societal restrictions, choose their own way, and find new meaning in life. One expression of hippie independence from societal norms was found in their standard of dress and grooming, which made hippies instantly recognizable to one another, and served as a visual symbol of their respect for individual rights. Through their appearance, hippies declared their willingness to question authority, and distanced themselves from the “straight” and “square” (i.e., conformist) segments of society.
At the same time, many thoughtful hippies distanced themselves from the very idea that the way a person dresses could be a reliable signal of who he was, especially after outright criminals, like Charles Manson, began to adopt superficial hippie characteristics, and also after plainclothes policemen started to “dress like hippies” in order to divide and conquer legitimate members of the counter-culture. Frank Zappa admonished his audience that “we all wear a uniform”: the San Francisco clown/hippie Wavy Gravy said in 1987 that he could still see fellow-feeling in the eyes of Market Street businessman who’d dressed conventionally to survive.
As in the beat movement preceding them, and the punk movement that followed soon after, hippie symbols and iconography were purposely borrowed from either “low” or “primitive” cultures, with hippie fashion reflecting a disorderly, often vagrant style. As with other adolescent, white middle-class movements, deviant behavior of the hippies involved challenging the prevailing gender differences of their time: both men and women in the hippie movement wore jeans and maintained long hair, and both genders wore sandals or went barefoot. Men often wore beards, while women wore little or no makeup, with many going braless. Hippies often chose brightly colored clothing and wore unusual styles, such as bell-bottom pants, vests, tie-dyed garments, dashikis, peasant blouses, and long, full skirts; non-Western inspired clothing with Native American, Asian, Indian, African and Latin American motifs were also popular. Much of hippie clothing was self-made in defiance of corporate culture, and hippies often purchased their clothes from flea markets and second-hand shops. Favored accessories for both men and women included Native American jewelry, head scarves, headbands and long beaded necklaces. Hippie homes, vehicles and other possessions were often decorated with psychedelic art.
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Travel, domestic and international, was a prominent feature of hippie culture, becoming (in this communal process) an extension of friendship. School buses similar to Ken Kesey’s Further, or the iconic VW bus, were popular because groups of friends could travel on the cheap. The VW Bus became known as a counterculture and hippie symbol, and many buses were repainted with graphics and/or custom paint jobs — these were predecessors to the modern-day art car. A peace symbol often replaced the Volkswagen logo. Many hippies favored hitchhiking as a primary mode of transport because it was economical, environmentally friendly, and a way to meet new people.
Hippies tended to travel light and could pick up and go wherever the action was at any time; whether at a “love-in” on Mount Tamalpais near San Francisco, a demonstration against the Vietnam War in Berkeley, one of Ken Kesey‘s “Acid Tests”, or if the “vibe” wasn’t right and a change of scene was desired, hippies were mobile at a moment’s notice. Pre-planning was eschewed as hippies were happy to put a few clothes in a backpack, stick out their thumbs and hitchhike anywhere. Hippies seldom worried whether they had money, hotel reservations or any of the other standard accoutrements of travel. Hippie households welcomed overnight guests on an impromptu basis, and the reciprocal nature of the lifestyle permitted freedom of movement. People generally cooperated to meet each other’s needs in ways that became less common after the early 1970s.” This way of life is still seen among the Rainbow Family groups, new age travellers and New Zealand’s housetruckers. A derivative of this free-flow style of travel were hippie trucks and buses, hand-crafted mobile houses built on truck or bus chassis to facilitate a nomadic lifestyle as documented in the 1974 book Roll Your Own Some of these mobile gypsy houses were quite elaborate with beds, toilets, showers and cooking facilities.
On the West Coast, a unique lifestyle developed around the Renaissance Faires that Phyllis and Ron Patterson first organized in 1963.
During the summer and fall months, entire families traveled together in their trucks and buses, parked at Renaissance Pleasure Faire sites in Southern and Northern California, worked their crafts during the week, and donned Elizabethan costume for weekend performances and to attend booths where handmade goods were sold to the public.
The sheer number of young people living at the time made for unprecedented travel opportunities to special happenings. The peak experience of this type was the Woodstock Festival near Bethel, New York, from August 15 to 18, 1969, which drew over 500,000 people.
One travel experience, undertaken by hundreds of thousands of hippies between 1969 and 1971, was the Hippie trail overland route to India. Carrying little or no luggage, and with small amounts of cash, almost all followed the same route, hitch-hiking across Europe to Athens and on to Istanbul, then by train through central Turkey via Erzurum, continuing by bus into Iran, via Tabriz and Tehran to Mashhad, across the Afghan border into Herat, through southern Afghanistan via Kandahar to Kabul, over the Khyber Pass into Pakistan, via Rawalpindi and Lahore to the Indian frontier. Once in India, hippies went to many different destinations but gathered in large numbers on the beaches of Goa, or crossed the border into Nepal to spend months in Kathmandu. In Kathmandu, most of the hippies hung out in tranquil surrounding of a place called Freak Street (Nepal Bhasa: Jhoo Chhen) which still exists near Kathmandu Durbar Square.
Many hippies rejected mainstream organized religions in favor of a more personal spiritual experience, often drawing on indigenous beliefs and folk religions, among others. If they adhered to mainstream faiths, they embraced Buddhism, Hinduism and the Jesus Movement. Many hippies embraced neo-paganism (especially Wicca) as well.
The peace symbol was developed in the UK as a logo for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and was embraced by U.S. anti-war protestors during the 1960s (though it is copyrighted). Hippies were often pacifists and participated in non-violent political demonstrations, such as civil rights marches, the marches on Washington D.C., and anti–Vietnam War demonstrations, including draft-card burnings and the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests. The degree of political involvement varied widely among hippies, from those who were active in peace demonstrations to the more anti-authority street theater and demonstrations of the Yippies, the most politically active hippie sub-group. Bobby Seale discussed the differences between Yippies and hippies with Jerry Rubin who told him that Yippies were the political wing of the hippie movement, as hippies have not “necessarily become political yet”. Regarding the political activity of hippies, Rubin said, “They mostly prefer to be stoned, but most of them want peace, and they want an end to this stuff.”
In addition to non-violent political demonstrations, hippie opposition to the Vietnam War included organizing political action groups to oppose the war, refusal to serve in the military and conducting “teach-ins” on college campuses that covered Vietnamese history and the larger political context of the war.
Scott McKenzie’s 1967 rendition of John Phillips’ song “San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)“, which helped inspire the hippie Summer of Love, became a homecoming song for all Vietnam veterans arriving in San Francisco from 1967 on. McKenzie has dedicated every American performance of “San Francisco” to Vietnam veterans, and he sang at the 2002 20th anniversary of the dedication of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Hippie political expression often took the form of “dropping out” of society to implement the changes they sought. Politically motivated movements aided by hippies include the back to the land movement of the 1960s, cooperative business enterprises, alternative energy, the free press movement, and organic farming.
The political ideals of the hippies influenced other movements, such as anarcho-punk, rave culture, green politics, stoner culture and the new age movement. Penny Rimbaud of the English anarcho-punk band Crass said in interviews, and in an essay called The Last Of The Hippies, that Crass was formed in memory of his friend, Wally Hope. Rimbaud also said that Crass were heavily involved with the hippie movement throughout the 1960s and Seventies, with Dial House being established in 1967. Many punks were often critical of Crass for their involvement in the hippie movement. Like Crass, Jello Biafra was influenced by the hippie movement and cited the yippies as a key influence on his political activism and thinking, though he did write songs critical of hippies.
Following in the well-worn footsteps of the Beats, the hippies also used cannabis (marijuana), considering it pleasurable and benign. They enlarged their spiritual pharmacopeia to include hallucinogens such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline while renouncing the use of alcohol. On the East Coast of the United States, Harvard University professors Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner and Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) advocated psychotropic drugs for psychotherapy, self-exploration, religious and spiritual use. Regarding LSD, Leary said, “Expand your consciousness and find ecstasy and revelation within.”
“According to the hippies, LSD was the glue that held the Haight together. It was the hippie sacrament, a mind detergent capable of washing away years of social programming, a re-imprinting device, a consciousness-expander, a tool that would push us up the evolutionary ladder.”
On the West Coast of the United States, Ken Kesey was an important figure in promoting the recreational use of psychotropic drugs, especially LSD, also known as “acid.” By holding what he called “Acid Tests“, and touring the country with his band of Merry Pranksters, Kesey became a magnet for media attention that drew many young people to the fledgling movement. The Grateful Dead (originally billed as “The Warlocks”) played some of their first shows at the Acid Tests, often as high on LSD as their audiences. Kesey and the Pranksters had a “vision of turning on the world.” Harder drugs, such as amphetamines and heroin were also used in hippie settings; however, these drugs were often disdained, even among those who used them, because they were recognized as harmful and addictive.
Newcomers to the Internet are often startled to discover themselves not so much in some soulless colony of technocrats as in a kind of cultural Brigadoon – a flowering remnant of the ’60′s, when hippie communalism and libertarian politics formed the roots of the modern cyberrevolution…
The legacy of the hippie movement continues to permeate Western society. In general, unmarried couples of all ages feel free to travel and live together without societal disapproval. Frankness regarding sexual matters has become more common, and the rights of homosexual, bisexual and transsexual people, as well as people who choose not to categorize themselves at all, have expanded. Religious and cultural diversity has gained greater acceptance. Co-operative business enterprises and creative community living arrangements are more accepted than before. Some of the little hippie health food stores of the 1960s and 1970s are now large-scale, profitable businesses, due to greater interest in natural foods, herbal remedies, vitamins and other nutritional supplements. Authors Stewart Brand and John Markoff argue that the development and popularization of personal computers and the Internet find one of their primary roots in the anti-authoritarian ethos promoted by hippie culture.
Distinct appearance and clothing was one of the immediate legacies of hippies worldwide. During the 1960s and 1970s, mustaches, beards and long hair became more commonplace and colorful, while multi-ethnic clothing dominated the fashion world. Since that time, a wide range of personal appearance options and clothing styles, including nudity, have become more widely acceptable, all of which was uncommon before the hippie era. Hippies also inspired the decline in popularity of the necktie and other business clothing, which had been unavoidable for men during the 1950s and early 1960s.
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The hippie legacy in literature includes the lasting popularity of books reflecting the hippie experience, such as The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. In music, the folk rock and psychedelic rock popular among hippies evolved into genres such as acid rock, world beat and heavy metal music. Psychedelic trance (also known as psytrance) is a type of electronic music music influenced by 1960s psychedelic rock. The tradition of hippie music festivals began in the United States in 1965 with Ken Kesey’s Acid Tests, where the Grateful Dead played tripping on LSD and initiated psychedelic jamming. For the next several decades, many hippies and neo-hippies became part of the Deadhead community, attending music and art festivals held around the country. The Grateful Dead toured continuously, with few interruptions between 1965 and 1995. Phish and their fans (called Phish Heads) operated in the same manner, with the band touring continuously between 1983 and 2004. Many contemporary bands performing at hippie festivals and their derivatives are called jam bands, since they play songs that contain long instrumentals similar to the original hippie bands of the 1960s.
With the demise of Grateful Dead and Phish, nomadic touring hippies attend a growing series of summer festivals, the largest of which is called the Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival, which premiered in 2002. The Oregon Country Fair is a three-day festival featuring hand-made crafts, educational displays and costumed entertainment.
The Burning Man festival began in 1986 at a San Francisco beach party and is now held in the Black Rock Desert northeast of Reno, Nevada. Although few participants would accept the hippie label, Burning Man is a contemporary expression of alternative community in the same spirit as early hippie events. The gathering becomes a temporary city (36,500 occupants in 2005), with elaborate encampments, displays, and many art cars. Other events that enjoy a large attendance include the Rainbow Family Gatherings, The Gathering of the Vibes, Community Peace Festivals, and the Woodstock Festivals.
In the UK, there are many new age travellers who are known as hippies to outsiders, but prefer to call themselves the Peace Convoy. They started the Stonehenge Free Festival in 1974, but English Heritage later banned the festival, resulting in the Battle of the Beanfield in 1985. With Stonehenge banned as a festival site, new age travellers gather at the annual Glastonbury Festival.
In New Zealand between 1976 and 1981 tens of thousands of hippies gathered from around the world on large farms around Waihi and Waikino for music and alternatives festivals. Named Nambassa, the festivals focused on peace, love, and a balanced lifestyle. The events featured practical workshops and displays advocating alternative lifestyles, self sufficiency, clean and sustainable energy and sustainable living.
In the UK and Europe, the years 1987 to 1989 were marked by a large-scale revival of many characteristics of the hippie movement. This later movement, composed mostly of people aged 18 to 25, adopted much of the original hippie philosophy of love, peace and freedom. The summer of 1988 became known as the Second Summer of Love. Although the music favored by this movement was modern electronic music, especially house music and acid house, one could often hear songs from the original hippie era in the chill out rooms at raves. In the UK, many of the well-known figures of this movement first lived communally in Stroud Green, an area of north London located in Finsbury Park.
In 2002, photojournalist John Bassett McCleary published a 650-page, 6,000-entry unabridged slang dictionary devoted to the language of the hippies titled The Hippie Dictionary: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1960s and 1970s. The book was revised and expanded to 700 pages in 2004. McCleary believes that the hippie counterculture added a significant number of words to the English language by borrowing from the lexicon of the Beat Generation, through the hippies’ shortening of beatnik words and then popularizing their usage.
 See also
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- ^ http://members.aye.net/~hippie/hippie/special_.htm
- ^ Sheidlower, Jesse (2004-12-08), Crying Wolof, Slate Magazine, http://www.slate.com/id/2110811/, retrieved 2007-05-07 .
- ^ Harry “The Hipster” Gibson (1986), Everybody’s Crazy But Me646456456654151, The Hipster Story, Progressive Records, http://www.hyzercreek.com/harryautobio.htm
- ^ a b “The Hippies”, Time, 1968-07-07, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,899555-1,00.html, retrieved 2007-08-24 .
- ^ Randall, Annie Janeiro (2005), “The Power to Influence Minds”, Music, Power, and Politics, Routledge, pp. 66–67, ISBN 0415943647 .
- ^ Kennedy, Gordon; Ryan, Kody (2003), Hippie Roots & The Perennial Subculture, http://www.hippy.com/php/article-243.html, retrieved 2007-08-31 . See also: Kennedy 1998.
- ^ Elaine Woo, Gypsy Boots, 89; Colorful Promoter of Healthy Food and Lifestyles, Los Angeles Times, August 10, 2004, Accessed December 22, 2008.
- ^ Zablocki, Benjamin. “Hippies.” World Book Online Reference Center. 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-12. “Hippies were members of a youth movement…from white middle-class families and ranged in age from 15 to 25 years old.”
- ^ a b Dudley 2000, pp. 193–194.
- ^ a b Hirsch 1993, p. 419. Hirsch describes hippies as: “Members of a cultural protest that began in the U.S. in the 1960s and affected Europe before fading in the 1970s…fundamentally a cultural rather than a political protest.”
- ^ a b Pendergast & Pendergast 2005. Pendergast writes: “The Hippies made up the…nonpolitical subgroup of a larger group known as the counterculture…the counterculture included several distinct groups…One group, called the New Left…Another broad group called…the Civil Rights Movement…did not become a recognizable social group until after 1965…according to John C. McWilliams, author of The 1960s Cultural Revolution.”
- ^ a b Stone 1994, Hippy Havens.
- ^ August 28 – Bob Dylan turns The Beatles on to cannabis for the second time. See also: Brown, Peter; Gaines, Steven (2002), The Love You Make: An Insider’s Story of the Beatles, NAL Trade, ISBN 0451207351 ;Moller, Karen (2006-09-25), Tony Blair: Child Of The Hippie Generation, Swans, http://www.swans.com/library/art12/moller04.html, retrieved 2007-07-29 .
- ^ Light My Fire: Rock Posters from the Summer of Love, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2006, http://www.mfa.org/exhibitions/sub.asp?key=15&subkey=2147, retrieved 2007-08-25 .
- ^ Booth 2004, p. 214.
- ^ Oldmeadow 2004, pp. 260, 264.
- ^ Stolley 1998, pp. 137.
- ^ Yippie Abbie Hoffman envisioned a different society: “…where people share things, and we don’t need money; where you have the machines for the people. A free society, that’s really what it amounts to… a free society built on life; but life is not some Time Magazine, hippie version of fagdom… we will attempt to build that society…” See: Swatez, Gerald. Miller, Kaye. (1970). Conventions: The Land Around Us Anagram Pictures. University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. Social Sciences Research Film Unit. qtd at ~16:48. The speaker is not explicitly identified, but it is thought to be Abbie Hoffman.
- ^ Wiener, Jon (1991), Come Together: John Lennon in His Time, University of Illinois Press, p. 40, ISBN 0252061314 : “Seven hundred million people heard it in a worldwide TV satellite broadcast. It became the anthem of flower power that summer…The song expressed the highest value of the counterculture…For the hippies, however, it represented a call for liberation from Protestant culture, with its repressive sexual taboos and its insistence on emotional restraint…The song presented the flower power critique of movement politics: there was nothing you could do that couldn’t be done by others; thus you didn’t need to do anything…John was arguing not only against bourgeois self-denial and future-mindedness but also against the activists’ sense of urgency and their strong personal commitments to fighting injustice and oppression…”
- ^ a b Yablonsky 1968, pp. 106–107.
- ^ Theme appears in contemporaneous interviews throughout Yablonsky (1968).
- ^ McCleary 2004, pp. 50, 166, 323.
- ^ Dudley 2000, pp. 203–206. Timothy Miller notes that the counterculture was a “movement of seekers of meaning and value…the historic quest of any religion.” Miller quotes Harvey Cox, William C. Shepard, Jefferson Poland, and Ralph J. Gleason in support of the view of the hippie movement as a new religion. See also Wes Nisker‘s The Big Bang, The Buddha, and the Baby Boom: “At its core, however, hippie was a spiritual phenomenon, a big, unfocused, revival meeting.” Nisker cites the San Francisco Oracle, which described the Human Be-In as a “spiritual revolution”.
- ^ Carlos Santana: I’m Immortal interview by Punto Digital, October 13, 2010
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Hong Kong Willie
Indian Dreams – Hong Kong Willie – Original Art
Dimensions: 23″ x 7″ x 1″
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